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Minerals are divided into two groups based upon the dietary level needed. Macro minerals required in large amounts and are expressed as a percentage of the diet:

  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium



Skeletal development and maintenance, blood clotting, muscle contraction, temperature regulation, enzyme activity regulation, glandular secretion and cell membrane integrity.



Accounts for 14-17% of the bone and is also important for maintaining skeletal soundness. It has roles in skeletal development and maintenance, buffering, energy metabolism, and synthesis of phospholipi