Vitamin requirements are affected by age, growth stage and stress, such as work load, travel and disease. In addition supplementation also depends upon dietary supply, microbial synthesis and absorption. They are needed in small amounts to promote and regulate several body functions.
All vitamins except A and E are produced in the body; vitamins D, C and niacin (a B group vitamin) are synthesized by the horse; all other B vitamins and vitamin K are synthesized by microbes in the cecum and large intestine. Vitamins are classed as fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E & K) or water-soluble (vitamin C and all B vitamins).
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D3
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin K
- Biotin (vitamin H)
- Vitamin B1
- Vitamin B2
- Niacin, (vitamin B3)
- Vitamin B5
- Vitamin B6
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
Vision, reproduction, bone and muscle growth, remodelling of bone in response to exercise and maintenance of healthy epithelial tissue.
Calcium metabolism control (absorption from the intestine, movement in and out of bone and that is retained or excreted through the urine).
As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin E is drawn to structures that contain lipids, such as cell membranes and serves to protect and stabilize those structures. Increased exercise can raise requirements in order to rid the muscle tissue of free radicals. Vitamin E is required for immune response and antioxidant activity.
Vitamin K is essential in the blood-clotting process.
Biotin (vitamin B)
Biotin is needed for the extracellular matrix (a lipoprotein intercellular cementing substance) formed in the epidermal cells; this substance provides cell to cell adhesion. Which is the processes which improves hoof quality. It is also is responsible for lipid metabolism, growth and maintenance of rapidly dividing tissues
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is involved with the enzyme system which releases energy from absorbed or stored carbohydrate or fat.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) allows the enzyme systems which are associated with carbohydrate, amino acid and fat metabolism to function. It is also essential for normal growth and health.
Niacin, (vitamin B3)
Niacin is involved in metabolism and in particularly in the energy release process.
Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5) is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids, the formation of antibodies, neural function and energy metabolism. Little is stored in the body so supplementation is essential.
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is involved in a number of metabolic processes and around 50 enzymes are directly dependant on it. It is involved in the synthesis of globulins (the proteins that carry antibodies), haemoglobin production, and activity of the nervous system, amino acid metabolism and energy production.
Folic acid is important in nitrogen metabolism.
Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is involved in several enzyme systems which are the basis for protein formation; it is associated with folic acid and the production of the essential amino acid methionine. It plays a role in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrate and protein.